Water quality -- Computer simulation, Hydrologic models, Hydrodynamics -- Mathematical models, Water supply -- Environmental apsects -- Central Europe, Water supply -- Environmental apsects -- Eastern Europe
Deteriorated water resources in Central and Eastern Europe call for actions that should be undertaken to improve current conditions and to protect human and environmental health. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation is often an integral part of the decision-making process. Models and simulations allow rapid and varied evaluation of causes and effects and the principal advantage is that they enable an analysis of even long-term actions with limited investment costs. This paper provides an overview of popular models used for simulation of major elements of a water quality system: surface water quality (QUAL2E), wastewater treatment (Activated Sludge Model No.1), sewer network (SWMM), and water distribution network (EPANET). Model uses are illustrated by specific examples both in the U.S. or in Central and Eastern Europe.
Makinia, J., Wells, S. A., Crawford, D., and Kulbik, M. (1998) "Application of Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation for Solving Water Quality Problems," Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe Warsaw '98, September 15-17, Warsaw, Poland.