Funding for this study was provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal & Child Health Bureau (1 R40MC07841-01-00). Data collection was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (CA109804). Additional support was provided by the NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (K01HD047122 and HD37584).
Neighborhoods -- Health aspects, Air -- Pollution -- Health aspects, Prenatal influences, Pregnancy -- Environmental aspects
The purpose of this research was to assess the consistency of associations between neighborhood characteristics and pregnancy-related behaviors and outcomes across four nested neighborhood boundaries using race-stratified fixed-slope random-intercept multilevel logistic models. High incivilities was associated with increased smoking, inadequate weight gain and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), while walkability was associated with decreased smoking and PIH for white women across all neighborhood definitions. For African American women, high incivilities was associated with increased smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, while more walkable neighborhoods appeared protective against smoking and inadequate weight gain in all but the smallest neighborhoods. Associations with neighborhood attributes were similar in effect size across geographies, but less precise as neighborhoods became smaller.
Messer LC, Vinikoor-Imler LC, Laraia BA. Conceptualizing neighborhood space: consistency and variation of associations for neighborhood factors and pregnancy health across multiple neighborhood units. Health and Place, Jul;18(4): 805-13. 2012.