The authors gratefully acknowledge the Santa Fe Institute Adaptive Computation Program and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (grant B1992-46). Support was also provided to Forrest by the National Science Foundation (grant IRI-9157644).
Evolution -- Mathematical models, Genetic algorithms, Evolutionary computation, Genetic programming (Computer science)
Genetic algorithms are computational models of evolution that play a central role in many artificial-life models. We review the history and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, giving illustrative examples in which the genetic algorithm is used to study how learning and evolution interact, and to model ecosystems, immune system, cognitive systems, and social systems. We also outline a number of open questions and future directions for genetic algorithms in artificial-life research
Mitchell, Melanie, and Stephanie Forrest. "Genetic algorithms and artificial life." Artificial Life 1.3 (1994): 267-289. doi:10.1162/artl.1922.214.171.1247