US National Park Service Climate Change Program
Journal of Glaciology
Glaciers -- Climatic factors, Climatic changes, Streamflow, Glaciers -- Pacific Northwest, Olympic Mountains (Wash.)
The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, currently holds 184 alpine glaciers larger than 0.01 km² and their combined area is 30.2 ± 0.95km². Only four glaciers are >1km² and 120 of the others are -¹ (1900–80) to 0.54 km² a-¹ (1980–2009). Thinning rates on four of the largest glaciers averaged nearly 1ma-¹ from 1987 to 2010, resulting in estimated volume losses of 17–24%. Combined glacial snow, firn and ice melt in the Hoh watershed is in the range 63–79 ± 7 × 106m3, or 9–15% of total May–September streamflow. In the critical August–September period, the glacial fraction of total basin runoff increases to 18–30%, with one-third of the water directly from glacial ice (i.e. not snow and firn). Glaciers in the Elwha basin produce 12–15 ± 1.3 × 106m3 (2.5–4.0%), while those in the Dungeness basin contribute 2.5–3.1 ± 0.28 × 106m3 (3.0–3.8%).
RIEDEL, J., WILSON, S., BACCUS, W., LARRABEE, M., FUDGE, T., & FOUNTAIN, A. (2015). Glacier status and contribution to streamflow in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA. Journal of Glaciology, 61(225).