Procedia Environmental Sciences
Environmental degradation -- Prevention, Urban climatology, City planning -- Environmental aspects
In the last two decades substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the scientific basis of urban climates. These are reviewed here with attention to sustainability of cities, applications that use climate information, and scientific understanding in relation to measurements and modelling. Consideration is given from street (micro) scale to neighbourhood (local) to city and region (meso) scale. Those areas where improvements are needed in the next decade to ensure more sustainable cities are identified. High-priority recommendations are made in the following six strategic areas: observations, data, understanding, modelling, tools and education. These include the need for more operational urban measurement stations and networks; for an international data archive to aid translation of research findings into design tools, along with guidelines for different climate zones and land uses; to develop methods to analyse atmospheric data measured above complex urban surfaces; to improve short-range, high-resolution numerical prediction of weather, air quality and chemical dispersion through improved modelling of the biogeophysical features of the urban land surface; to improve education about urban meteorology; and to encourage communication across scientific disciplines at a range of spatial and temporal scales.
C.S.B. Grimmond, M. Roth, T.R. Oke, Y.C. Au, M. Best, R. Betts, G. Carmichael, H. Cleugh, W. Dabberdt, R. Emmanuel, E. Freitas, K. Fortuniak:, S. Hanna, P. Klein, L.S. Kalkstein, C.H. Liu, A. Nickson, D. Pearlmutter, D. Sailor, J. Voogt, 2010. "Climate and More Sustainable Cities: Climate Information for Improved Planning and Management of Cities (producers/Capabilities Perspective)," Procedia Environmental Sciences, (Elsevier) 1, 247-274.