This research was supported by awards from Portland State University’s Venture Development Fund and the Faculty Enhancement program. A grant from Portland State University’s Internationalization Council is also acknowledged.
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
Scanning tunneling microscopy, Scanning probe microscopy, Crystallography
Crystallographic image processing (CIP) techniques may be utilized in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to glean information that has been obscured by signals from multiple probe tips. This may be of particular importance for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and requires images from samples that are periodic in two dimensions (2D). The image-forming current for double-tips in STM is derived with a slight modification of the independent-orbital approximation (IOA) to allow for two or more tips. Our analysis clarifies why crystallographic averaging works well in removing the effects of a blunt STM tip (that consists of multiple mini-tips) from recorded 2D periodic images and also outlines the limitations of this image-processing technique for certain spatial separations of STM double-tips. Simulations of multiple mini-tip effects in STM images (that ignore electron interference effects) may be understood as modeling multiple mini-tip (or tip shape) effects in images that were recorded with other types of SPMs as long as the lateral sample feature sizes to be imaged are much larger than the effective scanning probe tip sizes.
Straton, J. C., Moon, B., Bilyeu, T. T., & Moeck, P. (2015). Removal of multiple-tip artifacts from scanning tunneling microscope images by crystallographic averaging. Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging, 1(1), 14.