Collective Efficacy and Violence in Chicago Neighborhoods: A Reproduction
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice
This research tests the reproducibility of the neighborhood-level effects of social composition and collective efficacy on community violence that Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls reported in a Science article entitled “Neighborhood and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Based upon data from a resident survey, the U.S. Census, and official homicide reports from Chicago, Sampson et al. found that neighborhood collective efficacy directly affects perceived neighborhood violence, household victimization, and homicide rates. In addition, they reported that the relationship between residential stability and concentrated disadvantage with each measure of violence is mediated after adding their collective efficacy measure to the regression models. This article uses Earls, Brooks-Gunn, Raudenbush, and Sampson’s archived data collection and other archived data collections to assess the extent to which Sampson et al.’s core substantive findings are independently reproducible. While the reanalysis identified some differences between the archived data and the information provided in Sampson et al., the reanalysis produced findings in the same reported direction and statistical significance for virtually all of Sampson et al.’s core substantive outcomes. This confirmation of their key conclusions provides added confidence in their collective efficacy thesis and enhances the prospects for extending it by assessing the degree to which it also affects other crime types and whether these effects persist over time.
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Maxwell, C. D., Garner, J. H., & Skogan, W. G. (2018). Collective efficacy and violence in Chicago neighborhoods: A reproduction. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 1043986218769988.