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DFI Journal - The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute

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Lateral loads, Piling (Civil engineering), Soil liquefaction, Bridges -- Earthquake effects, Earthquake resistant design


Effective-stress nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) were performed for piles in the liquefiable sloped ground to assess how inertia and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading combine in long- and short-duration motions. A parametric study was performed using input motions from subduction and crustal earthquakes covering a wide range of durations and amplitudes. The NDA results showed that the pile demands increased due to (a) longer duration shakings, and (b) liquefaction-induced lateral spreading compared to nonliquefied conditions. The NDA results were used to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent static analysis (ESA) recommended by Caltrans/ODOT for estimating pile demands. Finally, the NDA results were used to develop new ESA methods to combine inertial and lateral spreading loads for estimating elastic and inelastic pile demands.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in DFI Journal - The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in DFI Journal - The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute, 11:2-3, 114-127. Article is available online at:



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