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Bridges -- Foundations and piers -- Effect of earthquakes on, Piling (Civil engineering), Soil liquefaction, Lateral loads


Effective-stress nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) were performed for a large-diameter reinforced concrete (RC) pile in multi-layered liquefiable sloped ground. The objective was to assess the effects of earthquake duration on the combination of inertia and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A parametric study was performed using input motions from subduction and crustal earthquakes covering a wide range of motion durations. The NDA results showed that the pile head displacements increased under liquefied conditions, compared to nonliquefied conditions, due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. The NDA results were used to develop a displacement-based equivalent static analysis (ESA) method that combines inertial and lateral spreading loads for estimating elastic and inelastic pile demands.


This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics V. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics V.: Liquefaction Triggering, Consequences, and Mitigation, 2018. Proceeding is available online at:



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