Published In

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering

Document Type


Publication Date



Lateral loads, Piling (Civil engineering), Soil liquefaction, Bridges -- Earthquake effects, Earthquake resistant design


Five dynamic, large-scale centrifuge tests on pile-supported wharves were used to investigate the time- and depth-dependent nature of kinematic and inertial demands on the deep foundations during earthquake loading. The wharf structures in the physical experiments were subjected to a suite of recorded ground motions and imposed superstructure inertial demands on the piles. Partial to full liquefaction in loose sand resulted in slope deformations of varying magnitudes that imposed kinematic demands on the piles. It was found that the wharf inertia and soil displacements were always in phase during the critical cycle when bending moments were at their maximum values. The test results were analyzed to provide the relative contributions of peak inertial loads and peak soil displacements during critical cycles, and the data revealed the depth dependency of these factors. The results of this study are used in a companion paper to provide recommendations for the design of pile-supported wharves subjected to foundation deformations.


© Copyright the author(s)


This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 148(11), 04022090 and is located here:



Persistent Identifier