Porphyrinoid-Based Photosensitizers for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications: An Update

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Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines

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Porphyrin-based molecules are actively studied as dual function theranostics: fluorescence-based imaging for diagnostics and fluorescence-guided therapeutic treatment of cancers. The intrinsic fluorescent and photodynamic properties of the bimodal molecules allows for these theranostic approaches. Several porphyrinoids bearing both hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic units at their periphery have been developed for the aforementioned applications, but better tumor selectivity and high efficacy to destroy tumor cells is always a key setback for their use. Another issue related to their effective clinical use is that, most of these chromophores form aggregates under physiological conditions. Nanomaterials that are known to possess incredible properties that cannot be achieved from their bulk systems can serve as carriers for these chromophores. Porphyrinoids, when conjugated with nanomaterials, can be enabled to perform as multifunctional nanomedicine devices. The integrated properties of these porphyrinoid-nanomaterial conjugated systems make them useful for selective drug delivery, theranostic capabilities, and multimodal bioimaging. This review highlights the use of porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines as well as their multifunctional nanodevices in various biomedical theranostic platforms.


This paper is part of the 2019 Women in Porphyrin Science special issue.



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