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Journal of Chemical Education

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Chemistry -- Study and teaching (Higher), Active learning, Flipped classrooms, Motivation in education -- United States, Educational innovations -- United States, Action research in education -- United States


Active learning environments have been shown to be beneficial for student learning; however, including such activities can be limited by the class time available. One method that can provide more opportunities for active learning during face-to-face class time is the flipped learning approach. However, studies on the impacts of flipped learning environments on student motivation are limited. Therefore, in this multi-institutional study, general chemistry students enrolled in flipped courses at three institutions responded to measures of self-efficacy and self-regulatory strategies. The results from these measures were used to evaluate how students’ academic self-efficacy (ASE) and chemistry self-efficacy (CSE) changed over the term at each institution as well as to compare students’ CSE between the institutions. Evidence was found for scalar measurement invariance across all measures, such that latent means could be used to compare results over time and between the institutions. Overall, students at each institution showed a decrease in ASE over the term, although their CSE increased. Comparisons between the institutions showed that students at the Southeastern institution had a higher post CSE than students at the Western and Northwestern institutions. One salient difference between the institutions was the structure of the face-to-face class time, which suggests that there may be a relation between students’ post CSE scores and the structure of the course. However, other variables, such as the demographic profiles of the institutions, may have also played a role in the observed differences.


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Chemistry Commons