Published In

Global Advances in Health and Medicine

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2018

Subjects

Post-traumatic stress disorder, Tinnitus--Patients--Case studies

Abstract

Background: Tinnitus (ie, ear or head noises not caused by external sounds) is common among the general population and is the most prevalent service-connected disability in the United States’ Department of Veterans Affairs system. While numerous clinical interventions have been created to systematically address the range of issues caused by tinnitus, only a few tinnitus interventions have focused on both teaching and assessing coping strategies. The present pilot study involved a randomized clinical trial comparing 3 brief group interventions to a usual-care (UC) group (ie, a wait-list control group): the first intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a second based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and a third based on coping effectiveness training (CET). Each intervention group also received tinnitus-related audiological education. Participants: Forty individuals met the eligibility requirements and were randomized into 1 of the 4 groups (ACT, CBT, CET, or UC). An intent-to-treat analysis was used in this study. Measures: The Brief COPE scale was used to assess coping. Coping was assessed at 3 time points (pre-intervention, postintervention, and at 4-week follow-up). The outcomes were 3 coping factors (engagement coping, disengagement coping, and social support coping). Results: When examining differences among the groups on mean coping scores over time, significant group differences were found on social support coping, with the CET group scores significantly higher than the UC group. Discussion: While all 3 brief interventions teach stress-reduction techniques, ACT and CBT focus primarily on managing one’s unwanted thoughts and emotions. CET teaches participants both a range of coping strategies (eg, stress-management approaches) to more effectively manage stressors that cannot be changed, as well as coping strategies (eg, such as problemsolving) that can be used to eliminate stressors that can be changed. CETalso teaches communication skills for telling others about one’s tinnitus-related issues. CET instructs individuals on how to select coping strategies that are appropriate for different kinds of stressors and how to seek social support, which is a skill not explicitly taught by ACTor CBT. Results of this study were derived from a small sample size, and thus, future research should focus on replicating the results among a larger sample. In addition, future research could focus on adapting the CET intervention to a different delivery format.

Description

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non- Commercial 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https:// us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

DOI

10.1177/2164956118783659

Persistent Identifier

https://archives.pdx.edu/ds/psu/26186

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