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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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Underwater acoustics, Noise, Acoustical engineering


One of the most stringent impairments in matched-field processing is the impact of missing or erroneous environmental information on the final source location estimate. This problem is known in the literature as model mismatch and is strongly frequency dependent. Another unavoidable factor that contributes to model mismatch is the natural time and spatial variability of the ocean waveguide. As a consequence, most of the experimental results obtained to date focus on short source-receiver ranges (usually <5 >km), stationary sources, reduced time windows and frequencies generally below 600 Hz. This paper shows that MFP source localization can be made robust to time–space environmental mismatch if the parameters responsible for the mismatch are clearly identified, properly modeled and (time-)adaptively estimated by a focalization procedure prior to MFP source localization. The data acquired during the ADVENT’99 sea trial at 2, 5, and 10 km source-receiver ranges and in two frequency bands, below and above 600 Hz, provided an excellent opportunity to test the proposed techniques. The results indicate that an adequate parametrization of the waveguide is effective up to 10 km range in both frequency bands achieving a precise localization during the whole recording of the 5 km track, and most of the 10 km track. It is shown that the increasing MFP dependence on erroneous environmental information in the higher frequency and at longer ranges can only be accounted for by including a time dependent modeling of the water column sound speedprofile.


This is the publisher's final PDF. Copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America. The following article appeared in J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1879 and may be found at:



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