The authors gratefully acknowledge support for this research by the Office of Naval Research Ocean Acoustics Program. J.S.A. acknowledges support from the Department of Homeland Security under award 2008-ST-061-ML0001.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Multibeam mapping -- Algorithms -- Analysis, Hydrophone -- Application to detection and localization
An automated, passive algorithm for detecting and localizing small boats using two hydrophones mounted on the seabed is outlined. This extends previous work by Gebbie et al. [(2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, EL77 − EL83] in which a similar two-hydrophone approach is used to produce an ambiguity surface of likely target locations leveraging multipath analysis and knowledge of the local bathymetry. The work presented here improves upon the prior approach using particle filtering to automate detection and localization processing. A detailed analysis has also been conducted to determine the conditions and limits under which the improved approach can be expected to yield accurate range and unambiguous bearing information. Experimental results in 12 m of water allow for a comparison of different separation distances between hydrophones, and the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound is used to extrapolate the performance expected in 120 m water. This work demonstrates the conditions under which a low cost, passive, sparse array of hydrophones can provide a meaningful small boat detection and localization capability.
Gebbie, John, Martin Siderius, and John S. Allen III. "A two-hydrophone range and bearing localization algorithm with performance analysis." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 137.3 (2015): 1586-1597.