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The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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Ocean Ambient Noise -- Waves


The Green's function retrieval in media with horizontal boundaries usually only considers the extraction of direct and reflected waves but ignores the virtual head waves, which have been observed experimentally from ocean ambient noise and used to invert for geometric and environmental parameters. This paper derives the extraction of virtual head waves from ocean ambient noise using a vertically spaced sensor pair in a Pekeris waveguide. Ocean ambient noise in the water column is a superposition of direct, reflected, and head waves. The virtual head waves are produced by the cross-correlations between head waves and either reflected waves or other head waves. The locations of sources that contribute to the virtual head waves are derived based on the method of stationary phase. It is the integration over time of contributions from these sources that makes the virtual head waves observable. The estimation of seabed sound speed with virtual head waves using a vertical line array is also demonstrated. The slope of the virtual head waves is different from that of direct and reflected waves in the virtual source gather; it is therefore possible to constructively stack the virtual head waves. The predictions are verified with simulations.


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