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IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering

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Ocean sounds, Acoustics (Physical sciences)


This article describes the results of the Spring of 2021 New England Shelf Break Acoustics (NESBA) Signals and Noise experiment as they pertain to the optimization of a field of passive receivers versus an environmentally aware source with end-state goals. A discrete optimization has been designed and used to demonstrate providing an acoustic system operator with actionable guidance relating to optimally distributed receiver locations and depths and likely mean source detection times and associated uncertainties as a function of source and receiver levels of environmental awareness. The uncertainties considered here are those due to the imperfect spatial and temporal sensing of the water column, ambient noise (AN), and the seabed, and the impact this has on ocean forecasting and acoustic performance prediction accuracy. As a part of the NESBA experiment, high-resolution (1 km spatial) regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model ensemble forecasts were generated to capture oceanographic variability and uncertainty. Passive AN-based seabed measurements were conducted to estimate seabed properties including variability and uncertainty. Extensive AN and conductivity, temperature, and depth measurements were also conducted. In this article, operationally relevant metrics are employed to estimate the potential value-added of optimal receiver location and depth placements as a function of source end-state goals and assumed level of environmental awareness. A concept for generating stochastic acoustic prediction metrics and associated optimally distributed receiver locations and depths in an operational environment is proposed.


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