Published In

Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners

Document Type


Publication Date



Response to intervention (Learning disabled children), Second language learning and teaching, Effective teaching


This paper proposes a model of effective instruction and intervention for English Learners (ELs) within a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework. First, we review literature on effective instruction for ELs and how RTI can address the needs of these students. Then, we describe the PLUSS model, which integrates research on effective instruction for ELs, tiered models of support, and teacher practices. The model includes the following elements: Pre-teaching critical vocabulary; Language modeling and opportunities to use academic language; Using visuals and graphic organizers; Systematic and explicit instruction; and Strategic use of native language and teaching for transfer. Finally, we provide an example of a PLUSS model lesson for Tier 2 instruction within an RTI framework.


This is the publisher's final PDF. Article appears in Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners and is copyrighted 2012 by Council for Exceptional Children.

Persistent Identifier