Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners
Response to intervention (Learning disabled children), Second language learning and teaching, Effective teaching
This paper proposes a model of effective instruction and intervention for English Learners (ELs) within a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework. First, we review literature on effective instruction for ELs and how RTI can address the needs of these students. Then, we describe the PLUSS model, which integrates research on effective instruction for ELs, tiered models of support, and teacher practices. The model includes the following elements: Pre-teaching critical vocabulary; Language modeling and opportunities to use academic language; Using visuals and graphic organizers; Systematic and explicit instruction; and Strategic use of native language and teaching for transfer. Finally, we provide an example of a PLUSS model lesson for Tier 2 instruction within an RTI framework.
Sanford, A. K., Brown, J., & Turner, M. (2012). Enhancing Instruction for English Learners in Response to Intervention Systems: The PLUSS Model. Multiple Voices For Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 13(1), 56-70.