Macro-Systems Biology Program (US NSF) EF-1065548 EF-1065737 EF-1065740 EF-1065741 EF-1065772 EF-1065785 EF-1065831 EF-121238320, NSF LTER program for Baltimore DEB-0423476, Phoenix BCS-1026865 DEB-0423704 DEB-9714833 Plum Island, Boston OCE-1058747 1238212 Cedar Creek, Minneapolis-St. Paul DEB-0620652, Florida Coastal Everglades, Miami DBI-0620409
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Biotic communities -- United States, Urban ecology (Biology), Land management, Land use, Urbanization, Lawn care industry, Sustainability
Changes in land use, land cover, and land management present some of the greatest potential global environmental challenges of the 21st century. Urbanization, one of the principal drivers of these transformations, is commonly thought to be generating land changes that are increasingly similar. An implication of this multiscale homogenization hypothesis is that the ecosystem structure and function and human behaviors associated with urbanization should be more similar in certain kinds of urbanized locations across biogeophysical gradients than across urbanization gradients in places with similar biogeophysical characteristics. This paper introduces an analytical framework for testing this hypothesis, and applies the framework to the case of residential lawn care. This set of land management behaviors are often assumed-not demonstrated-to exhibit homogeneity. Multivariate analyses are conducted on telephone survey responses from a geographically stratified random sample of homeowners (n = 9,480), equally distributed across six US metropolitan areas. Two behaviors are examined: lawn fertilizing and irrigating. Limited support for strong homogenization is found at two scales (i.e., multi- and single-city; 2 of 36 cases), but significant support is found for homogenization at only one scale (22 cases) or at neither scale (12 cases). These results suggest that US lawn care behaviors are more differentiated in practice than in theory. Thus, even if the biophysical outcomes of urbanization are homogenizing, managing the associated sustainability implications may require a multiscale, differentiated approach because the underlying social practices appear relatively varied. The analytical approach introduced here should also be productive for other facets of urban-ecological homogenization
Polsky, C., Grove, J. M., Knudson, C., Groffman, P. M., Bettez, N., Cavender-Bares, J., ... & Steele, M. K. (2014). Assessing the homogenization of urban land management with an application to US residential lawn care. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(12), 4432-4437.