This research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, primarily grant no. DEB 04-23259 to the Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research Network site. The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is operated by the Northern Research Station of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, and is a Long Term Ecological Research Network site. This article is a contribution to the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study.
Climatic changes -- Environmental aspects, Forest hydrology, Forest ecology, Forest microclimatology, Plant phenology, Plant communities, Ecosystem services, Ecological disturbances
Evaluations of the local effects of global change are often confounded by the interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors that overshadow the effects of climate changes on ecosystems. Long-term watershed and natural elevation gradient studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and in the surrounding region show surprising results demonstrating the effects of climate change on hydrologic variables (e.g., evapotranspiration, streamflow, soil moisture); the importance of changes in phenology on water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes during critical seasonal transition periods; winter climate change effects on plant and animal community composition and ecosystem services; and the effects of anthropogenic disturbances and land-use history on plant community composition. These studies highlight the value of long-term integrated research for assessments of the subtle effects of changing climate on complex ecosystems
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