Management of Engineering and Technology
The innovation of new basic technologies that create new industrial structures and devices arises from progress created in the research and development institutional infrastructure of a nation. Without this overhead of basic knowledge creation, technological innovation eventually stagnates for lack of new phenomenal knowledge for its inventive ideas . The R&D infrastructure in the United States consists of three main institutional sectors - industry, government, and university. Research in industry is focused primarily on advancing technology, whereas research in universities is focused primarily on advancing either science or generic technology . The government supports its own research labs, and appropriates funding for research support in the other two sectors. In this study, answers to seven probing questions are presented: ¡¤ What are the long term ramifications of this shift R&D spending from government funded basic research to industry funded developmental research on science and technology? ¡¤ Are industry expectations different than government expectations with regard to funding of (basic) research? ¡¤ Why is more basic research now funded by industry than the federal government, and what are the long term ramifications of this on science and technology? ¡¤ Due to the shift in sponsorship of basic research funding, is less pure basic research being done now than in the past? ¡¤ What are the political influences on Federal government and defense R&D? ¡¤ Has defense related R&D influenced industrial development programs? ¡¤ In each of the three R&D sectors (university, industry, government), is importation of research talent encouraged (increasing) or discouraged (decreasing)? Why? For each issue, a brief history is given, followed by conclusions and a discussion of recent events, if applicable. Finally, lessons learned are presented, closing with recommendations in hindsight as to what could have been done differently.
Chung-Sine, Christophe; Dachavorawuth, Kitti; Demirci, Cem; Hallum, Don; Kaplan, Onur; and Yates, Diane, "U.S. Research and Development Infrastructure" (2003). Engineering and Technology Management Student Projects. 1632.