Research and development (R&D) of a product or service plays an important role of the economic well-being of a nation, the profitability of an enterprise, the effectiveness of a technology-based governmental agency, and the enormous investments nations make in R&D activities. It is the importance of the results of R&D that contribute to the success of the company, respectively the economic system of a nation. This importance is a driver to look at the relations between efforts, respectively R&D spending, and the output variables, that contribute to the R&D performance, and in addition to this the company’s success, however these variables will be defined. If causal relations are known and proved with mathematical, respectively statistical tools, then you can concentrate on the input variables to gain the efficiency of R&D, as a necessary precondition for a company’s success.
Hammer, Raik, "Student Paper for ETM 520" (1996). Engineering and Technology Management Student Projects. 1782.