Document Type

Closed Project

Publication Date

Summer 2011


Paul Newman

Course Title

Managing Emerging Technologies

Course Number

ETM 571/671


Systems and processes across the globe are inescapably subject to the second law of thermodynamics which states that the total entropy of a system will increase. Most commonly, the increased entropy takes the form of waste heat [1]. Researchers at the University of Minnesota led by Dr. Richard James have discovered a multiferroic alloy that can be used to convert heat directly into electricity due to its unique phase transformation properties [2]. This specific research is a young branch of the burgeoning phase-change technology field. Solid state phase-change technology research has been underway for a long time, but has only recently begun to gain traction over the last two decades (see figure 1).


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