First Advisor

Laura J. Hickman

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Criminology and Criminal Justice and University Honors


Criminology and Criminal Justice


Abused women -- Services for -- United States -- History, Feminism, Social movements -- United States




Only since the 1970s has there been societal interest in establishing Domestic Violence (DV) advocacy to address the violent oppression of women. The catalyst which brought this issue to the forefront of social consciousness was the Women's Liberation Movement. The activism of the 1960s civil rights movements set the stage for the Battered Women's Movement. Feminists recognized violence as a product of patriarchal society. Patriarchy, and with it personal and institutional violence, was embedded in every aspect of society. Shifting ideological and political views have influenced the evolution of DV advocacy from the grassroots activists’ fight for equality, to the modern professional approach to DV advocacy. In this shift in advocacy approaches, professionalization and political goals were either integrated with or replaced entirely the culture and goals of the grassroots movement. This transformation has occurred despite limited comparative, experimental study. This thesis will recommend comparative study to explore questions of (1) whether these shifting goals have been positive for victims of DV (2) how these goals are currently measured, and (3) how they should be measured.


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