First Advisor

Janet Walker

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Psychology and University Honors




Psychoses -- Treatment, Psychoses -- Patients -- Care, Health services accessibility, Medical care -- Law and legislation




Psychosis and the signs of psychosis are not widely understood by individuals, families, primary care or community health professionals. As a result, psychotic individuals experience a particularly lengthy delay -- an average of two years -- before they receive treatment; a duration that is called in literature the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP; Connor et al., 2016; Corcoran et al., 2007; Malla et al., 2010). Additionally, despite extensive research, there remains sizeable gaps in knowledge on these delays. Such gaps include how a lack of access to services may contribute to delays, how the psychotic experience delays in justice institutions, and why delays occur after an individual is referred to psychiatric services (engagement delay; Malla et al., 2010). Another gap includes how factors that lead to delays are being addressed by policy makers. A literature review combining existing knowledge on the factors contributing to delay and approaches that are being or could be used to reduce these delays for psychotic individuals is needed. This literature review aims to offer such a summary by recounting the current knowledge on delays and reviewing educational efforts aimed at individuals, families, primary care, and community professionals.


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