Urban planning -- Oregon -- Portland
In an Enhanced Service District (ESD) property managers are required to pay a license fee, and the money from that license fee is used to fund extra security, marketing, and cleaning programs. ESDs patrol a huge chunk of Portland’s public space.
Despite their significant role in managing public spaces, oversight for ESDs is very limited. The city government collects the assessed fees and gives it to the overseeing organizations to spend. There are no oversight measures for these organizations mandated by law.
Dey, Kaitlyn, "Business Improvement Districts and Enhanced Service Districts" (2019). Homelessness Research & Action Collaborative Publications and Presentations. 8.