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Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

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Ball grid array technology, Strength of materials -- Testing, Fault tolerance (Engineering), Materials -- Dynamic testing, Column-grid-arrays


Board level drop test is considered with an objective to develop a physically meaningful analytical predictive model for the evaluation of the expected impactinduced dynamic stresses in the solder material. Ball-gridarray (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) designs are addressed. Intuitively it is felt that while the application of the CGA technology to relieve thermal stresses in the solder material might be quite effective (owing to the greater interfacial compliance of the CGA in comparison with the BGA), the situation might be quite different when the PCB/package experiences dynamic loading. This is because the mass of the CGA joints exceeds considerably that of the BGA interconnections and the corresponding inertia forces might be substantially larger in the case of a CGA design. The numerical example carried out for rather arbitrary, but realistic, input data has indicated that the dynamic stresses in the solder material of the CGA design are even higher than the stresses in the BGA interconnections. This means particularly that the physically meaningful drop height in board-level tests should be thoroughly selected and that this height should be different, for BGA and CGA designs.


This work was authored as part of the Contributor's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.

Originally published in Suhir, E. & Ghaffarian, R. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2016) 27: 11572. Can be found online at:



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