Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budget and Conditional Sampling of Momentum, Scalar, and Intermittency Fluxes in Thermally Stratified Wind Farms
The authors would like to recognise the computational support provided by the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) at University of Utah. This work was authored in part by Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, the manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U.S. government. The U.S. Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the U.S. government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for U.S. government purposes.
Journal of Turbulence
A description of the turbulence kinetic energy budget is investigated to understand the dynamics and turbulence energy transfer between the atmospheric boundary layer and large wind farms. The turbulence kinetic energy budget terms are a dominant factor in explaining the energy supply process in wind farms. Large eddy simulations are used to generate the thermally stratified wind turbine array boundary layer, where stable and unstable conditions are considered. The wakes represent a sink of mean kinetic energy, and turbulence transport redistributes energy in the wake region. The energy balance between the budget terms is dependent on the physical location in the wind farm. During the unstable scenario, turbulence is driven by the production, transport, and buoyancy terms. Further, the contribution of the turbulence kinetic energy budget terms is reduced with increasing atmospheric stability, especially above the shear layer, where the mechanical production is the dominant term. Pressure diffusion redistributes the turbulent energy from the streamwise direction into the other components of the normal Reynolds stresses. This distinctive feature of the changing thermal stratification is presented through the quadrant analysis. The momentum ejection and sweep frequencies are both comparable and dominant. The scalar flux shows an increase in the contribution of the negative correlation in the quadrants. The quadrant analysis is extended to account for intermittency based on the pointwise Hölder exponents. Positive correlations are dominant in the wake and in higher layers of the domain for both considered cases.
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Ali, N., Hamilton, N., Calaf, M., & Cal, R. B. (2019). Turbulence kinetic energy budget and conditional sampling of momentum, scalar, and intermittency fluxes in thermally stratified wind farms. Journal of Turbulence, 20(1), 32–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/14685248.2018.1564831