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Graphene morphology, Oxide superconductors, Metallic oxides


To develop a synthesis technique providing enhanced control of graphene film quality and uniformity, a systematic characterization and manipulation of hydrocarbon precursors generated during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene is presented. Remote ionization of acetylene is observed to generate a variety of neutral and ionized hydrocarbon precursors, while in situ manipulation of the size and reactivity of carbon species permitted to interact with the growth catalyst enables control of the resultant graphene morphology. Selective screening of high energy hydrocarbon ions coupled with a multistage bias growth regime results in the production of 90% few-to-monolayer graphene on 50 nm Ni/Cu alloy catalysts at 500 C. Additionally, synthesis with low power secondary ionization processes is performed and reveals further control during the growth, enabling a 50% reduction in average defect densities throughout the film. Mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy monitoring of the reaction environment in conjunction with Raman characterization of the synthesized graphene films facilitates correlation of the carbon species permitted to reach the catalyst surface to the ultimate quality, layer number, and uniformity of the graphene film. These findings reveal a robust technique to control graphene synthesis pathways during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.


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