There is sufficient evidence to support the importance of adaptive student engagement with respect to improved school behavior, academic achievement, and high school completion rates. Students who are more engaged exhibit high levels of adaptive attention, cognition, and behaviour as well as create social, physical, and intellectual resources (i.e., Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008; Fredrickson, 2001). A three-year study designed to investigate and track student engagement and academic achievement with Grade 9 and 10 students has demonstrated that 21st century instructional practices have the potential to improve students’ perceptions of community, orientation to school, and in particular, their academic strategies.



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