First Advisor

Leonard Robertson

Term of Graduation

Spring 1972

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Teaching (M.S.T.)


Business Administration




Office practice -- Study and teaching, Business education -- Vietnam -- Simulation methods



Physical Description

1 online resource (4, vi, 79 pages)


The Vietnamese secondary school system is experimenting with the comprehensive concept. The office of education program, one of the first fields included in the process, is at its initial stage of development in Vietnam. A reference guide for a realistic teaching technique is needed to help develop a different approach for the program.

Statement of the Problem
The problem studied was to prepare a set of guidelines for using office simulation to teach office practice in the Vietnamese comprehensive high schools.

Purposes of the Study
The main purposes of this study were to: (1) introduce a different and realistic approach in the teaching and learning situation for the office practice course in Vietnam; and (2) Provide a general reference guide for an office simulation approach in teaching office practice in Vietnamese public high schools.

Methods and Procedures
Research studies and reports, as well as professional writings pertaining to simulation approach in office education and other fields, were reviewed, analyzed and synthesized. The period covered was from 1962 to 1971.

The preliminary review revealed the six major areas that were necessary in building guidelines for the Vietnamese business educators and School administrators who have not used the simulation technique. The later selection of data was made based on these six identified areas:

  1. The objectives of the office practice course.
  2. The simulation technique and its contribution to the office practice course.
  3. The criteria for designing an educational simulation model.
  4. The organization of the simulated environment.
  5. The operation of office simulation.
  6. The teacher's role in the simulation program.

Telephone interviews were made with the former business education advisor in Thu Due Demonstration High School to acquire a general outlook into the present status of the office practice course in Vietnam.

The findings of this study were presented as a set of general guidelines. These guide lines were based on the theoretical and practical principles and opinions on instructional simulation, in office education and other fields, as experimented researched and expressed in the United States. They were organized into four areas:

  1. Design guidelines included the following steps: a. Establishment of objectives
    b. System analysis
    c. Data collection
    d. Establishment of model framework
    e. Manual and script writing
    f. Model tryout
    g. Student evaluation procedure
    h. Model redesign
  2. Administrative guidelines concerned:
    a. Administrative supports
    b. Course prerequisites and planning
    c. Curriculum planning
    d. Equipment and furniture
    e. Class sizes
    f. Employee’s manuals
    g. Business supplies and forms
    h. Classroom layout
  3. Operational guidelines concerned:
    a. Pretests
    b. Simulation orientation
    c. Intensive training
    d. Employment interview and role assignment
    e. Simulation warmup
    f. Full-scale simulation
    g. Debriefing sessions
    h.Post-simulation debriefing
    i. Post-test
  4. Teacher education guidelines involved:
    a. Teacher's attitude
    b. Teacher's role
    c. Working competency
    d. Professional responsibility

Main Recommendations
As the result of the study, it was recommended that:

  1. A field experiment be conducted to test the workability of the guidelines with the Vietnamese business educators.
  2. Business teacher education in the Vietnamese educational institutions include the training to use, design, and modify existing simulation games.
  3. Commercial simulation packages used in other educational systems be made available to the Vietnamese teachers.
  4. Research and evaluation be done in view of the use of mobile office education units in Vietnam.
  5. Workshops or practicum be organized to introduce the simulation technique to business education teachers and school administrators.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL.

Persistent Identifier