Advisor

Martin J. Streck

Date of Award

Winter 2-24-2016

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Environmental Sciences and Resources: Geology

Department

Geology

Physical Description

1 online resource (xiii, 213 pages)

Subjects

Volcanological research -- Oregon, Eastern, Flood basalts -- Research -- Oregon -- Strawberry Mountain Wilderness

DOI

10.15760/etd.2708

Abstract

The Strawberry Volcanics of Northeast Oregon are a group of geochemically related lavas with a diverse chemical range (basalt to rhyolite) that erupted between 16.2 and 12.5 Ma and co-erupted with the large, (~200,000 km3) Middle Miocene tholeiitic lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), which erupted near and geographically surround the Strawberry Volcanics. The rhyolitic lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics produced the oldest 40Ar/39Ar ages measured in this study with ages ranging from 16.2 Ma to 14.6 Ma, and have an estimated total erupted volume of 100 km3. The mafic and intermediate lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics include both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline compositions; calc-alkaline andesite is the dominant type by volume. 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mafic and intermediate lava flows range from 15.6 Ma to 12.5 Ma, and volume estimates of the intermediate lavas are approximately 1,100 km3. The magmas that gave rise to the Strawberry Volcanics traveled to the surface through numerous dikes, some of which have been exposed at the surface and supplied lava to fissure – style eruptions and/or shield volcanoes. Herein, we show that the Strawberry Volcanics are related to the CRBG in both time and space and share a chemical affinity, specifically to the Steens Basalt. Chemical similarities are observed in normalized trace element patterns, selected trace element ratios, and radiogenic isotopes. Comparison of the Strawberry Volcanic rhyolites to the other Middle Miocene rhyolites of eastern Oregon associated with the initiation of the Yellowstone – Snake River mantle plume reveals similar eruption ages, trace element compositions, including the rare earth elements (REEs), and "A-type" rhyolite characteristics. These data suggest that the Strawberry Volcanics are part of the regional volcanism (basalt to rhyolite) of the Columbia River Basalt Province. The petrogenesis of the Strawberry Volcanics can be explained as follows: 1) The tholeiitic, intermediate magmas were produced by fractional crystallization of mafic magmas, which have a commonality with the surrounding Columbia River Basalt Group; 2) The calc-alkaline magmas are a result of mixing between tholeiitic basalt, rhyolite, and crust. The arc-like signature of the calc-alkaline lavas (elevated large ion lithophiles) is a result of both the melting source region and the end-members with which the mafic magmas mixed/contaminated. Other authors have produced similar findings from within the Basin and Range/Oregon-Idaho graben and CRB province. The difference at the Strawberry Volcanics is that there is no need for a primitive calc-alkaline magma or extensive fractional crystallization to generate the calc-alkaline andesites. Alternatively, the calc-alkaline magmas of the Strawberry Volcanics were generated by a more primitive tholeiitic magma than erupted at the surface, which interacted with crustal melts and assimilated crustal lithologies from the complex zone of assimilated terranes that make up the basement of eastern Oregon.

Persistent Identifier

http://archives.pdx.edu/ds/psu/16909

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