First Advisor

Gilbert T. Benson

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Geology






Geology -- Oregon -- Columbia County, Natural gas -- Underground storage -- Oregon -- Columbia County



Physical Description

1 online resource (161 p.)


Northwest Natural Gas Canpany has proposed to convert the Bruer and Flora pools of the Mist Gas Field in west-central Columbia County, Northwestern Oregon, to pipeline gas storage reservoirs. Conversion to underground storage of pipeline gas in these depleted gas reservoirs would be the first in the Pacific Northwest. The Bruer and Flora Pools are fault trapped within the Cowlitz Formation. The shales overlying the Cowlitz Formation create a local seal for these gas reservoirs. X-ray diffraction and density log measurements suggest that the clay in these shales is primarily composed of smectite, which provides an excellent caprock seal.

The reservoir rock of the Bruer and Flora Pools is the arkosic Cl ark and Wilson Sand. An average weighted grain density for the sand is 2.65 g/cm3. The abundance of potassium feldspar in the sand, hence K40, creates a background gamma radiation for the sand roughly equal to that of the shale, making the sand and shale virtually indistinguishable on the gamma ray log.

Bottan Hole Temperatures (BHT), which were recorded on open hole logs, indicate the Bruer Pool is 7°C (20°F) wanner than the Flora Pool, even though the Flora Pool is deeper. This temperature anomaly may be the result of equipment variation. A calibrated temperature survey would remove any discrepancies. A comparison of the thermal gradient determined in a previous study of the Oregon Coast Range and a gradient determined using BHT, suggest that BHT provide a good approximation of formation temperature.

Utilizing the formation water analysis determined from four different wells in the Mist Gas Field, average total dissolved solids was found to be 24, 444 mg/l. Of the four analyses, the sample from Well CC#6 R/D2 is considered to be the most representative of the Bruer and Flora fools formation waters. Analysis of the four samples using the Palmer System suggests that the formation water of the Cowlitz Formation is in the early stages of sea water diagenasis.

Formation water resistivity (Rw) was determined using a chemical and spontaneous potential analysis. Rw derived using chemical analysis averaged 0.175 ohm-meters and is considered the ITDst precise. Water saturation determined using the Archie saturation equation averaged 47.5% and ranged from 26.4 to 80.0% for the zone 814-836 meters (2670-2742 feet) in CC#10. These results are similar to those determined by the Thermal Time Decay (TDT) log.


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