First Advisor

Gerald Guthrie

Term of Graduation

Spring 1986

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Psychology






Cooperativeness, Soccer



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, iv, 26 pages)


The purpose of this study was to discover patterns in intra-team cooperation (passing) versus individualistic behavior (dribbling) across various age and gender groups. A behavioral coding scheme for soccer players in possession of the ball was designed to tabulate team responses of passing or dribbling behavior in a four-a-side indoor tournament. A total of 32 teams, 18 male teams and 14 female teams, participated in four age brackets. A multi variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) generated one significant result for age and passing behavior. This supported the first hypothesis that intra-team cooperative behavior increased with age. Due to the nonorthogonal nature of the data two separate analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted, one for each of the dependent variables. No significant results were generated by these ANOVA's for sex and dribbling behavior. However, there was tenuous confirmation of the second hypothesis, that there is a gender difference in the use of cooperative (passing) responses and individualistic (dribbling) behavior.


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