Portland State University. Department of History
Linda A. Walton
Date of Award
Master of Arts (M.A.) in History
1 online resource (157 p.)
Education -- China -- History -- To 1912, China -- History -- Qing dynasty (1644-1912)
Historical consensus has labeled the educational reform efforts of China's scholar-officials in the second half of the nineteenth century as merely reactions to external circumstances and therefore has concluded that these reforms were "failures". The youthful revolt against Chinese cultural traditions, which culminated in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, has frequently been cited as a clear demonstration that previous educational reforms had failed. However, when viewed as the intellectual phase of the revolutionary process, reform activities among members of China's bureaucratic and scholarly elite in the four and one half decades from the 1860s to the early 1900s can be seen as limited, but definite, successes, initiated from within the traditional society and assisted by the introduction of Western secular knowledge by Protestant missionaries.
Asbell, Andrea, "The foundation for revolution : educational reforms in late Chʻing China" (1991). Dissertations and Theses. Paper 4125.