First Advisor

Franz Rad

Date of Publication

Spring 6-6-2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Civil & Environmental Engineering


Civil and Environmental Engineering




Reinforced concrete -- Testing, Concrete beams -- Testing, Steel bars, Flexure, Reinforced concrete -- Ductility



Physical Description

1 online resource (xvi, 191 pages)


Utilizing the higher capacity steel in design can provide additional advantages to the concrete construction industry including a reduction of congestion, improved concrete placement, reduction in the required reinforcement and cross sections which would lead to savings in materials, shipping, and placement costs. Using high-strength reinforcement is expected to impact the design provisions of ACI 318 code and other related codes.

The Applied Technology Council (ATC-115) report "Roadmap for the Use of High-Strength Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Design" has identified key design issues that are affected by the use of high-strength reinforcement. Also, ACI ITG-6, "Design Guide for the Use of ASTM A1035 Grade 100 Steel Bars for Structural Concrete" and NCHRP Report 679, "Design of Concrete Structures Using High-Strength Steel Reinforcement" have made progress towards identifying how code provisions in ACI 318 and AASHTO could be changed to incorporate high-strength reinforcement.

The current research aims to provide a closer investigation of the behavior of beams reinforced with high-strength steel bars (including ASTM A615 Grade 100 and ASTM A1035 Grades 100 and 120) and high-strength concrete up to 12000 psi. Focus of the research is on key design issues including: ductility, stiffness, deflection, and cracking.

The research includes an extensive review of current literature, an analytical study and conforming experimental tests, and is directed to provide a number of recommendations and design guidelines for design of beams reinforced with high-strength concrete and high-strength steel. Topics investigated include: strain limits (tension-controlled and compression-controlled, and minimum strain in steel); possible change for strength reduction factor equation for transition zone (Φ); evaluation of the minimum reinforcement ratio (þmin); recommendations regarding limiting the maximum stress for the high-strength reinforcement; and prediction of deflection and crack width at service load levels. Moreover, this research includes long-term deflection test of a beam made with high grade concrete and high-strength steel under sustained load for twelve months to evaluate the creep deflection and to insure the appropriateness of the current ACI 318 time-dependent factor, λ, which does not consider the yield strength of reinforcement and the concrete grade.


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