First Advisor

Kimberley Brown

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.) in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages


Teaching English as a Second Language




Language and languages -- Study and teaching (Higher) -- Bilingual method, Languages, Modern -- Study and teaching (Higher)



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, 103 p.)


Oftentimes it is the foreign language classroom that provides the basic foundation for language exposure and acquisition. In the context of the foreign language classroom there is not much exposure to the TL outside of this setting. This being the case, the quantity of the TL should be relatively high as it is an essential requisite for language acquisition. In addition, most recent research tends to suggest that high quantities of TL from the instructor is ideal. The main purpose of this study has been to focus on university-level foreign language classrooms to explore the issue of language choice, Ll or TL, among instructors. Over a ten week period, six languages were observed and audiotaped on five separate occasions. The study asked the following questions: 1) If Ll (English) is used in university-level foreign language classrooms, what is the ratio of Ll to TL?; 2) For what purposes is the Ll used?; 3) What are teachers' and students' perceptions and attitudes regarding use of the Ll in the foreign language classroom? A categorization grid was created to answer the second research question. A student questionnaire and teacher interview were administered to answer the third research question. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. It was found that three out of the six languages used the Ll an average of 10% or less of the time, while the remaining three languages used the Ll for an average of 13% or more of the time. In regard to the second research question, four out of the six languages used the Ll most frequently for the purposes of language analysis and vocabulary translation. This investigation has attempted to explore and discuss practices within some foreign language classrooms at the university-level and to create greater awareness of those practices.


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