First Advisor

Rhea Paul

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Speech Communication


Speech Communication




Temperament in children, Children -- Language, Slow learning children



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, vii, 90 p.)


Many young children develop language over a broad range of ages yet present as having normal language development. When language development lags behind what is considered a normal time line, it is important to consider the various factors that may contribute to the delay in development. The purpose of the current study was to examine various aspects of temperament among three groups of children with varying language histories. The specific question to be answered was, do significant differences occur on parent and clinician questionnaires of temperament among three groups of first grade children demonstrating varying levels of language development: those with normal language (NL), those with a history of expressive language delay (HELD), and those with chronic expressive language delay (ELD)? Subjects for this study included 23 subjects in the NL group, 22 subjects in the HELD group, and 6 subjects in the ELD group. The groups were compared utilizing the Temperament Assessment Battery for Children (TABC) on six variables of temperament on Parent Forms and five variables of temperament on Clinician Forms. The data were analyzed to see if significant differences existed among the language diagnostic groups. On the Parent Forms, a trend towards low approach/withdrawal characteristics was observed between the NL and ELD groups. On the Clinician Forms, a significant difference was observed on the variable, approach/withdrawal, between the NL group and HELD group. Both parametric and non-parametric analyses were in agreement on this finding. The suggestion that low approach/withdrawal tendencies exist within late talking children may be the long term result of interaction between expressive language delayed children and the communication environment. These results must be viewed tentatively because the sample groups were of unequal numbers. If all diagnostic groups had been of equivalent size, the results may have been yielded stronger significance.


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