First Advisor

Miguel A. Figliozzi

Date of Publication

Fall 12-3-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Civil & Environmental Engineering


Civil and Environmental Engineering




Automobile parking, Commercial vehicles, Parking facilities, Traffic flow



Physical Description

1 online resource (xiii, 227 pages)


Commercial vehicles are crucial for the urban economy, but they generate negative impacts as well. This leads to restrictions such as a reduction in the number of loading zones. The result is that commercial drivers spend a significant amount of time searching for available loading zones. To avoid searching for parking, some commercial drivers double park, which causes traffic congestion. Therefore, the number of loading zones should be set properly. Since a curb is allocated between both loading zones and parking spaces, both parking types have to be considered. Many on-street parking management strategies have been implemented, including pricing meter rates and allocating curb length to both parking types.

Analytical models are proposed to manage an on-street parking system, including loading zones for commercial vehicles and parking spaces for passenger cars. The models give optimal solutions to the system, including curb length allocation and meter rates for both parking types. The models' objectives are to maximize revenue and to maximize social optimum which equals revenue minus driver costs and externality costs. The costs are parking search cost, traffic delay cost due to parking maneuver in and out of parking spots, and traffic delay cost due to double parking.

The optimal results from case studies demonstrate how the arrival rate of parking vehicles affects the meter rate. If the arrival rate is low, compared with parking supply, all vehicles will park on the street. The meter rate depends on the arrival rate. As the arrival rate increases, the parking search cost will increase. To keep the on-street option cheaper than the other parking option, the meter rate has to decrease. However, if the arrival rate is high, compared with parking supply, some drivers will park on-street while others will choose the other parking option. The meter rate usually does not depend on the arrival rate.

The optimal results from case studies demonstrate how the arrival rates of parking vehicles affect curb length allocation. If the arrival rates are low, much curb length will be allocated to a parking type of which meter rate is the most related to the allocation. However, if the arrival rates are high, much curb length will be allocated to a parking type of which revenue demand is the most related to the allocation. In practice, though, the meter rate usually does not depend on the allocation. Compared with the revenue model, the social optimum model allocates higher curb length to a parking type of which counterpart causes more externalities. For example, a commercial vehicle double parking causes a lot of traffic delay costs. The SOC model allocates higher curb length to loading zones than the revenue model does.

A commercial vehicle often double parks in a downtown area where there are a lot of customers and intersection intensity is high. A double-parking vehicle causes traffic congestion and the traffic queue might spill back to an intersection upstream of the vehicle. A traffic signal at the upstream intersection affects traffic delays caused by the double-parking event because the traffic signal changes distribution of traffic flow rates. If the vehicle starts to double park when the flow rate is saturation flow rate, the traffic delays will be the highest. A double-parking vehicle also delays parking passenger cars since passenger cars travels on roads while searching for available on-street parking spaces.


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