First Advisor

Tom Chenoweth

Date of Publication

Spring 6-4-2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership: Administration


Educational Leadership and Policy




High school principals -- Tanzania -- Evaluation, Educational leadership -- Study and teaching (Secondary), Teachers -- Rating of -- Cross-cultural studies, Transformational leadership -- Research -- Tanzania



Physical Description

1 online resource (xx, 388 pages)


Underachievement among secondary students in Tanzania is tragic: the failure rate on the national exams after the fourth year is between 65 to 100 percent (Mushi, 2011). The literature affirms that student learning is primarily improved by enhancing quality classroom instruction while the second most impactful strategy is consistent school leadership to ensure that effective practices are utilized in the classroom (Blase & Blase, 2004; Chenoweth & Everhart, 2002; Fink & Markholt, 2011; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Leithwood, Harris, & Strauss, 2010; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). Despite the research, the researcher's pilot study revealed that there is currently little or no oversight of classroom instruction in most Tanzanian secondary schools. This paradox yielded two research questions: 1. Can Tanzanian schools leaders improve the quality of classroom instruction in order to enhance student learning and performance by employing systematic, fair, and culturally relevant teacher evaluation techniques? 2. Are the teacher evaluation tools developed for American school systems suitable to serve the Tanzanian school system or must they be adapted into the Tanzanian cultural context?

Using a Problem-Based Learning [PBL] method, the researcher field-tested and refined The Curriculum for Training Secondary School Leaders, and a workshop in which it was taught. The workshop and its curriculum provided instruction in Evaluation and Supervision of Classroom Instruction (ESCI) to Tanzanian Head Masters and Mistresses (HMs), or as commonly referred to as principals in America, in an effort to develop their pedagogical leadership skills. During the workshop, HMs refined the American-designed evaluation tools to make them culturally relevant to a Tanzanian context. After attending the six-day intensive ESCI workshop, participants indicated in surveys that they felt capable of providing support and coaching to their teachers and capable of assisting teachers in their efforts to improve their pedagogical skills. The researcher provided additional workshops for teachers and HMs at their school sites to support educators in the implementation of ESCI. Qualitative research demonstrated teachers also had favorable post-workshop reactions to ESCI. Though the implementation of the product and training will be further assessed in 2014, the initial qualitative results from post-workshop surveys strongly confirmed that HMs developed confidence, skill, and competence in employing ESCI, thus increasing the likelihood that HMs would employ ESCI in their own schools in the year to come.


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