This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under DOE Field Office, Idaho Contract No. DE-AC07-94ID13223, supported in part by the Division of Engineering and Geosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE-OER, and in part by the INEL LongTerm Research Initiative in Computational Mechanics.
Physical Review E
Plasma (Ionized gases), Diffusion -- Magnetohydrodynamics, Thermal diffusity
A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zerofield form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations.
J.D. Ramshaw and C.H. Chang, "Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics," Phys. Rev. E 53, 6382 (1996)