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Journal of the Society for Social Work

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Social Work


Objective: To explore the relationships between social and environmental factors and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) among mothers of preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) using a social determinants of health (SDoH) framework. Method: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study that included 187 mother-infant dyads admitted to four NICUs in the Mountain West region between June 2017 and December 2019. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess the independent associations between maternal and infant characteristics and PSE. Results: Our final multiple linear regression model predicting the efficacy score including maternal race/ethnicity, age, insurance, employment status before giving birth, gestational age, depression, and having other children was significant (F(12,160) = 3.17, p = .0004, adjusted R¬2 = .131). Significant predictors of PSE were race/ethnicity (β= 3.3, p = .022), having another child/children (β= 4.2, p = .005), and depression (β= -4.2, p = .004). Conclusions: Findings suggest that social workers and medical practitioners should consider SDoH, such as insurance type, household income, and employment, along with traditional clinical indicators when assessing families’ infant care needs. Social workers, medical practitioners, and researchers should be mindful of how implicit bias may influence the allocation of care and parental supports.


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This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of the Society for Social Work Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of the Society for Social Work and is located here:

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