Development and Validation of the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22)

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Psychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences

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Understanding premorbid personality is important, especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of patients with major depression in Japan was described as Shuchaku‐kishitsu [similar to Typus melancholicus], as proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, there have been increased reports in Japan of young adults with depression who have had premorbid personality differing from the traditional type. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition ‘dysthymic‐type depression,’ and more recently the condition has been called Shin‐gata/Gendai‐gata Utsu‐byo [modern‐type depression (MTD)]. We recently developed a semi‐structured diagnostic interview to evaluate MTD. Development of a tool that enables understanding of premorbid personality in a short time, especially at the early stage of treatment, is desirable. The object of this study was to develop a self‐report scale to evaluate the traits of MTD, and to assess the scale's psychometric properties, diagnostic accuracy, and biological validity.


A sample of 340 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of the MTD traits was compared against a semi‐structured interview.


The questionnaire contained 22 items across three subscales, thus we termed it the 22‐item Tarumi's Modern‐Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self‐Esteem (TACS‐22). Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. Among patients with major depression, the area under the curve was 0.757 (sensitivity of 63.1% and specificity of 82.9%) and the score was positively correlated with plasma tryptophan.


The TACS‐22 possessed adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its ability to support clinical assessment of MTD is warranted.


© 2019 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology

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