Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach to Experience-Based Systems Identification and Control
The author acknowledges the many years of funding by the NSF, including ECS-9904378 and ECS-0301022.
Humans have the ability to make use of experience while selecting their control actions for distinct and changing situations, and their process speeds up and have enhanced effectiveness as more experience is gained. In contrast, current technological implementations slow down as more knowledge is stored. A novel way of employing Approximate (or Adaptive) Dynamic Programming (ADP) is described that shifts the underlying Adaptive Critic type of Reinforcement Learning method "up a level", away from designing individual (optimal) controllers to that of developing on-line algorithms that efficiently and effectively select designs from a repository of existing controller solutions (perhaps previously developed via application of ADP methods). The resulting approach is called Higher-Level Learning Algorithm. The approach and its rationale are described and some examples of its application are given. The notions of context and context discernment are important to understanding the human abilities noted above. These are first defined, in a manner appropriate to controls and system-identification, and as a foundation relating to the application arena, a historical view of the various phases during development of the controls field is given, organized by how the notion 'context' was, or was not, involved in each phase.
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Lendaris, G. G. (2009). Adaptive dynamic programming approach to experience-based systems identification and control. Neural networks, 22(5-6), 822-832.