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Transit-oriented development, Transportation -- Planning, Bus rapid transit, Street-railroads


Transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained popularity worldwide as a sustainable form of urbanism; it concentrates development near a transit station so as to reduce auto-dependency and increase ridership. Existing travel behavior studies in the context of TOD, however, are limited in terms of small sample size, inconsistent TOD classification methods, and failure to control for residential self-selection. Thus, this study has three research questions. First, how can we distinguish between Transit-oriented development (TOD) and Transit-adjacent development (TAD)? Second, how do travel behaviors vary between TODs and TADs? Third, how does transportation affordability vary between TODs and TADs? This study utilizes cluster analysis to classify station area types and propensity score matching to control residential self-selection.

From cluster analysis with built-environment factors—density, diversity, and walkability—in a half-mile buffer, this study classifies existing station areas as TOD, TAD or Hybrid types. After controlling for residential self-selection, it shows that a TOD motivates its residents to walk more and take transit more while using personal vehicles less. The significant difference between TOD and TAD in both VMT and the number of auto trips demonstrates that TODs make the personal vehicle trips shorter and fewer. Travel behavior in the Hybrid type demonstrates the possibility of gradual and practical change. Finally, the percentage of household income spent on transportation is lower in TOD households than TAD households. This shows that a TOD household is likely to save enough money on vehicle ownership and use that, while it likely spends more on transit, the final result is a significantly lower financial burden from transportation.


This is a final report, NITC-RR-859, from the NITC program of TREC at Portland State University, and can be found online at:

The Project Brief can be found here:



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