Killifishes -- Embryology, Diapause, Gene expression, Bone morphogenetic proteins, Proteins -- Inhibitors


The developmental pattern of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus is unusual compared to other fish. First, the cell movements associated with gastrulation are separated from formation of the embryonic axis. In addition, embryonic diapause can occur. Diapause II and III are often observed when embryos are incubated at 25oC. Maternal influences and incubation environment are the factors that determine entrance into embryonic diapause, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate diapause are still unknown. Interestingly, embryonic diapause and the unusual cell movements observed during early development are always found together in species of annual killifish that exhibit diapause. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) are crucial in the development of various embryonic tissues. A recent study found the gene expressions pattern of BMP antagonists, noggin, chordin and follistatin, in early - embryonic development in A. limnaeus are different from zebrafish. This finding suggests BMPs may play roles in the regulation of diapause. In the present paper, the expression of BMP-2, BMP-4 and the BMP Receptor-2 were examined during early embryonic development in A. limnaeus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).



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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

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