Motivational strategies, Emotion regulation, Self-doubt, Task performance, Job satisfaction


This meta-analysis provides a quantitative review on the relationships between motivational strategies and work-related well-being, and addresses the modulating effects of socioeconomic status (SES). Based upon a total number of 68 studies, involving 49,338 employees, the findings suggest that motivational strategies are associated with one’s well-being at work. Specifically, results indicate that more positive emotion regulation strategies are related to workers’ higher levels of job satisfaction and job performance. Conversely, more self-doubt is related to lower levels of job satisfaction and job performance. More interestingly, SES moderates some effect sizes, which include those related to emotional labor strategies (i.e., deep acting, and surface acting), two emotion regulation strategies commonly used in the service industry, tend to be more useful among low SES workers than the general working populations in managing well-being at work. These findings suggest that future research should identify optimal motivational strategies to improve low SES workers’ overall well-being at work, and consider additional well-being indicators such as work-family interface for these workers.