covert stuttering, telepractice, speech-language pathology, COVID-19 global pandemic


Purpose: To report on telepractice-based holistic speech-language therapy services to reduce avoidance of stuttering and increase positive self-image as a communicator for an adult who covertly stutters as compared to baseline.

Method: A single case study design was employed with baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases completed via telepractice. The participant received bi-weekly speech-language therapy services, including both individual and group sessions. The Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering-Adult (OASES-A) and Stuttering Severity Instrument-4th Edition (SSI-4) assessed the participant’s overt and covert stuttering behaviors at pre-treatment and post-treatment timeframes. Weekly data points of participant’s self-report of avoidance of stuttering during therapy sessions and during the week between therapy sessions as well as researcher calculated frequency of stuttering were measured. Visual inspection was utilized to analyze treatment outcomes.

Results: The participant demonstrated a reduction in avoidance of stuttering within sessions as well as the week prior to a session, as compared to baseline. Additionally, the participant presented with an increased percent of words stuttered (%WS) following into maintenance as compared to baseline. Visual inspection of weekly data points of frequency of stuttering and self-report of avoidance appeared to present promising results throughout the intervention phase with potential treatment effects continuing into the maintenance phase.

Conclusion: Results of the current study demonstrate preliminary evidence for potential positive outcomes of holistic speech therapy via telepractice for people who covertly stutter.



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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

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