Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2012


Timothy Anderson

Course Title

Research Methods in ETM

Course Number

EMGT 665


Technology management, Systems analysis, Business planning, New business enterprises -- Management -- Decision making


Reference models, sometimes called with other different words, prepare a general model from a specific view of the related environment. Reference models are considered as a basic foundation to create: 1) a common language among specialists 2) a reference for the entities such as processes 3) relationships among entities 4) tools and decision making procedures for the real world.

In this report, it's tried the definitions of reference model in the selected papers have been reviewed. It's noticeable that in many papers the term of framework is used instead of reference model. Also, applications of reference models are reviewed and finally future studies are suggested.

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