Document Type

Closed Project

Publication Date

Winter 2003

Course Number

EMGT 520/620



XEROX CORPORATION was once one of the brightest technology stars in the world. At one time, Xerox's name was synonymous with document copying. It was a company created by technology born on a kitchen counter by a frustrated patent clerk. A company remade from a little known photographic paper company. A company that at one point dominated nearly 95% of the worldwide market in dry, plain paper copying. A company that invented the personal computer and then abandoned the technology to other firms. A company that today struggles to avoid bankruptcy and return to prosperity. The basic technology of xerography was developed by Chester Carlson, refined in the non-profit labs of Battelle Memorial Institute and produced and marketed by the Haloid Company. Xerography was an innovation in document copying so powerful that Haloid renamed itself the Xerox Corporation and transformed itself from an also-ran company to a giant in its industry. Yet, even with its spectacular success, it failed to capitalize on other innovations potentially just as powerful and profitable. We will look at the beginnings of Xerox and explore how their early rise to success was possible. We then examine at how they have declined in recent years and how they could have avoided their current financial troubles.


This project is only available to students, staff, and faculty of Portland State University

Persistent Identifier